Sunday, November 10, 2013

Basic principles of disaster mitigation, disaster management and methodology



Disaster management relies heavily on the use of maps and mapping techniques for control of disasters and managing response. The maps used vary from topographic maps, land-use maps, hazard maps, geologic maps, vegetation maps, population distribution rods, seismic maps and hurricane tracking maps.

Schematic maps generated using computer graphics are used extensively to generate updated information about disaster situations as they develop. By monitoring stream flow and water level at an upstream location, the disaster manager can map the expected flood zone and predict threatened areas, extent of flooding and the areas that need to be evacuated on a priority basis. Computer-generated maps are used in risk analysis, vulnerability analysis, evacuation planning, flood monitoring, damage assessment and reconstruction planning.

Aerial photography is widely used as a tool for disaster management for both pre and post-disaster planning activities. Aerial photographs are extensively used for hazard analysis, disaster assessment, reconstruction planning and management.

Remote sensing is acquisition of information about a subject that is not in direct contact with the device. Weather RADAR, weather satellites, seismographs and sono buoys are examples of remote sensing systems.

Remote sensing data may be used for disaster management in the form of risk analysis and mapping, disaster warning, cyclone warning, drought monitoring, volcanoes, large-scale fires, etc.

Electronics communications are very important in disaster management. They are used for coordination and control, assessment, reporting, monitoring, scheduling logistics, reunification and tracing separated families.