Thursday, November 19, 2015

Rain water Harvesting

Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) is the process of collecting, conveying & storing water from rainfall.
The following methodologies are adopted for rain water harvesting:

  • Roof Rain Water Harvesting
  • Land based Rain Water Harvesting
  • Watershed based Rain Water harvesting
  • For Urban & Industrial Environment
    • Roof & Land based RWH
    • Public, Private, Office & Industrial buildings
    • Pavements, Lawns, Gardens & other open spaces
The advantages of Rain Water Harvesting are:

  • It provides self-sufficiency to water supply
  • It Reduces the cost for pumping of ground water
  • It Provides high quality water, soft and low in minerals
  • It Improves the quality of ground water through dilution when recharged
  • It Reduces soil erosion & flooding in urban areas
  • The rooftop rain water harvesting is less expensive &easy to construct, operate and maintain
  • In deserts, RWH the only relief
  • In saline or coastal areas & Islands, rain waterprovides good quality water

Rainwater Harvesting helps in the following ways:

  • It helps arrest ground water decline and augments groundwater table.
  • It improves water quality in aquifers
  • It helps conserve surface water runoff during monsoon
  • It helps reduce soil erosion
  • It instills a culture of water conservation.

Broadly there are two ways of harvesting rainwater:

  • Surface runoff harvesting :- In urban area rainwater flows away as surface runoff. This runoff could be caught and used for recharging aquifers by adopting appropriate methods 
  • Roof top rainwater harvesting:- It is a system of catching rainwater where it falls. In rooftop harvesting,the roof becomes the catchments, and the rainwater is collected from the roof of the house/building. It can either be stored in a tank or diverted to artificial recharge system.This method is less expensive and very effective and ifimplemented properly helps in augmenting the groundwater level of the area

Rooftops are favoured becauseof the large coefficient of run-offgenerated from them andrelatively less likelihood of theircontamination.
The water that leaves the rooftop may be 65 – 90% of the water that falls on it Roof material absorbs some water Evaporation losses More water loss if roof is flat
the water transported from the catchment surface to the storage tank

THE COMPONENTS OF ROOFTOP RAINWATER HARVESTING
FILTER AND FIRST FLUSH DEVICES remove grit, leaves and dirt that the rainwater may transport from the catchment, before the water enters the storage tank.
A first flush device diverts the water from the first rain so that it does not enter the storage tank.
A filter can be prepared using gravel sand, charcoal and gravel.
The first rain carries with it a lot of filth from the rooftop and dissolved air pollutants. This rainwater should be diverted away from the storage tank using a first flush device.
DELIVERY SYSTEM that convey the store drain water till the point of end-use. It is not recommended to use harvested rainwater for drinking, cooking and dish washing
From the simplest ground level tank, surface lined ponds and large lakes there are many storage options depending on the context of the rainwater harvesting design.
Above ground, Ground level or Intermediate floor level Save on pumping cost
Excess water can be diverted into a groundwater recharge system

Water obtained from RWH can be:

  1. Stored for direct use
  2. Used to recharge ground water aquifers
  3. Used to recharge bore wells
  4. Used to recharge Pits
  5. Used to soak away or recharge shafts
  6. Used to recharge dug wells
  7. Used to recharge trenches
  8. Used  as percolation tanks

Sunday, September 13, 2015

Environmental Ethics

There is an urgent need to inculcate sensitivity towards environmental degradation among people by fostering environmental ethical values.  Environmental Ethics attempts to define what is right and what is wrong regardless of cultural differences. We human beings have a fundamental duty towards nature to respect and care for the Earth, protect life-support systems, biodiversity and ensure sustainable development.
The following are the environmental ethical values to be inculcated:

  • Environmental consciousness
  • Humility and reverence
  • Responsibility and commitment
  • Respect for all forms of life and landscape
  • Global environmental citizenship
  • Self-reliance
  • Adoption of eco-friendly culture
  • Preservation of diversity on the planet
  • Sharing a common environment
The spectrum of environmental activities for inculcating environmental ethical values are:
  • Using recycled paper for notes and circulars
  • Diverting wastes from kitchen to the garden
  • Switching off unnecessary lights
  • Using bicycles or walking
  • Using public transport systems
  • Collecting rainwater
  • Avoiding usage of freshwater for gardening
  • Using cloth towels instead of paper towels
  • Avoiding unnecessary outdoor lighting
  • Organizing tree-plantation campaigns
  • Reducing volume of radio and television to reasonable levels
  • Listening to radio programs on environment and its problems
  • Organizing eco-clubs
  • Placing trash cans and dustbins around the college premises
  • Observing Environment day on 5th June and Earth day on 22nd April
  • Planting trees in and around the campus
  • Encouraging healthy lifestyles through balanced nutrition, exercise and yoga
  • Helping enforce environment protection laws
  • Staging short plays on environmental crisis to create environmental awareness
  • Conserving energy resources by avoiding unnecessary wastage of energy
  • Cutting and displaying pictures and newspaper cuttings depicting environmental crisis

Saturday, May 9, 2015

INDEX

Natural Capital
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2015/04/natural-capital.html

Environmentally sustainable City
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2015/04/environmentally-sustainable-city.html

Schematic representation of Structure of an Ecosystem
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2015/02/schematic-representation-of-structure.html

Question paper for Environmental Studies (9030) On 10 Dec 2014
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/12/question-paper-for-environmental.html

Answers to Environmental Studies Questions
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/12/answers-to-environmental-studies.html

ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2015/09/environmental-ethics.html

Disaster Management
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/11/disaster-management.html

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/11/disaster-management-cycle.html

IMPACT OF DISASTERS
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/11/impact-of-disasters.html

POPULATION GROWTH
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/11/population-growth.html

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/11/watershed-management.html

SALIENT FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTS IN INDIA
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/11/salient-features-of-environmental-acts.html

NOISE POLLUTION
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/10/noise-pollution.html

SOIL POLLUTION
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/10/soil-pollution.html

Environmental Studies - Biodiversity, Environmental Pollution and Legislation along with miscellaneous topics
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/10/environmental-studies-biodiversity.html

Natural resources: Water resources
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/natural-resources-water-resources.html

Ecological pyramids
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/ecological-pyramids.html

Energy flow in an ecosystem
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/energy-flow-in-ecosystem.html

Energy flow in an ecosystem - Single channel and Universal flow models
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2017/04/energy-flow-in-ecosystem.html

Structure and Function of an Ecosystem
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/structure-and-function-of-ecosystem.html

Food chains Vs Food webs
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/food-chains-vs-food-webs.html

Agriculture - Effects of modern methods and options
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/agriculture-effects-of-modern-methods.html

Natural resources - Land resources
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/09/natural-resources-land-resources.html

Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/08/multidisciplinary-nature-of.html

Environmental Studies - The need for public awareness
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/08/environmental-studies-need-for-public.html

SCOPE OF THE ENVIRONMENT
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/08/scope-of-environment.html

Four basic principles of ecology
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/07/four-basic-principles-of-ecology.html

Importance of Environmental Studies
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/07/importance-of-environmental-studies.html

Environmental Studies - Introduction
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/07/environmental-studies-introduction.html

ENERGY FLOW IN AN ECOSYSTEM
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/07/energy-flow-in-ecosystem.html

Environmental Studies Syllabus (Osmania University)
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/environmental-studies-syllabus-osmania.html

Important questions and answers
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/important-questions-and-answers.html

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental science
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/multidisciplinary-nature-of.html

Biogeochemical cycles - Carbon cycle in brief
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-carbon-cycle-in.html

Biogeochemical cycles: Sulphur cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-sulphur-cycle.html

Biogeochemical cycles - Oxygen cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-oxygen-cycle.html

Biogeochemical cycles - Nitrogen cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-nitrogen-cycle.html

Biogeochemical cycles: Phosphorus cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-phosphorus-cycle.html

The Water Cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/the-water-cycle.html

Question Bank
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/04/question-bank.html

Disaster management in India
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/disaster-management-in-india.html

Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/issues-involved-in-enforcement-of.html

Acid rain - Formation, Effects and Control measures
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/acid-rain-formation-effects-and-control.html

Ozone layer depletion
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/ozone-layer-depletion.html

Global warming - Definition, Effects, Control and Remedial measures
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/global-warming-definition-effects.html

Climate change - causes and effects
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/climate-change-causes-and-effects.html

Envionmental ethics
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/envionmental-ethics.html

Population Explosion
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/population-explosion.html

Watershed management
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/watershed-management.html

Water conservation
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/water-conservation.html

Solid waste management - sources, effects and methods of disposal
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/thermal-pullution-source-effects-and.html

Thermal pollution - causes, effects and control measures of thermal pollution
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/thermal-pollution-causes-effects-and.html

Noise pollution - Causes, types, effects and control of noise pollution
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/noise-pollution-causes-types-effects.html

Soil pollution - Types, effects, sources and control of soil pollution
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/soil-pollution-types-effects-sources.html

Water pollution - types, effects, sources and control of water pollution
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/water-pollution-types-effects-sources.html

Air Pollution - causes, effects and control measures
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/air-pollution-causes-effects-and.html

Environmental Pollution
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/environmental-pollution.html

Endangered and Endemic species of India
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/endangered-and-endemic-species-of-india.html

Conservation of biodiversity
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/conservation-of-biodiversity.html

Functions of biodiversity, Vaue of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/functions-of-biodiversity-vaue-of.html

Biogeographical classification of India
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/biogeographical-classification-of-india.html

Biodiversity - Genetic, Species and Ecosystem diversity
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/biodiversity-genetic-species-and.html

Aquatic ecosystems - Estuaries
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/aquatic-ecosystems-estuaries.html

Aquatic ecosystem - Oceans
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/aquatic-ecosystem-oceans.html

Aquatic Ecosystems - River or Stream
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/aquatic-ecosystems-river-or-stream.html

Aquatic ecosystems - Lakes
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/aquatic-ecosystems-lakes.html

Aquatic ecosystem-Ponds
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/aquatic-ecosystem-ponds.html

Ecological Pyramids
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/ecological-pyramids.html

Desertification
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/desertification.html

Land degradation- Land slides, Soil erosion and Desertification
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/land-degradation-soil-erosion-and.html

Land as a Resource
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/land-as-resource.html

Alternate Renewable Energy Sources
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/alternate-renewable-energy-sources.html

Non-renewable energy sources
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/non-renewable-energy-sources.html

Renewable energy sources
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/renewable-energy-sources.html

Energy resources, Growing energy needs, Renewable and non-renewable energy sources
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/energy-resources.html

Effects of modern agriculture - Fertilizer Pesticide problems, Water logging, Salinity
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/effects-of-modern-agriculture.html

Dams - Benefits and problems
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/dams-benefits-and-problems.html

Conflicts over water
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/conflicts-over-water.html

Natural resources: Droughts
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/natural-resources-droughts.html

Natural resources-Floods
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/natural-resources-floods.html

Natural resources: Water resources - Use and Over-use
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/natural-resources-water-resources.html

Environmental Studies - Definition, scope & importance, need for public awareness
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/es-definition-scope-importance-need-for.html

Kyoto Protocol
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/10/kyoto-protocol.html

Disaster management - Floods
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/disaster-management-floods.html

Disaster management - Landslides
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/disaster-management-landslides.html

Disaster management - Earthquakes
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/disaster-management-earthquakes.html

Forest conservation act, 1980
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/forest-conservation-act-1980.html

Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/wildlife-protection-act-1972.html

Water (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1974
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/water-prevention-and-control-of.html

Air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/air-prevention-and-control-of-pollution.html

Environment Protection Act, 1986
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/environment-protection-act-1986.html

Important questions-ii
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/important-questions-ii.html

Important questions-i
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/important-questions-i.html

Biodiversity
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/09/biodiversity-biodiversity-or-biological.html

Rainwater Harvesting
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.com/2015/11/rain-water-harvesting.html

The Water Cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/the-water-cycle.html

The Sulphur cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-sulphur-cycle.html

The Phosphorus cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-phosphorus-cycle.html

Oxygen cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-oxygen-cycle.html

The Nitrogen cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-nitrogen-cycle.html

The Carbon cycle
http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2014/06/biogeochemical-cycles-carbon-cycle-in.html

Monday, April 6, 2015

Natural Capital

Natural capital is the sum of natural resources and natural services. Examples of natural resources and natural services are listed below:

Natural resources:

  • Air
  • Water
  • Land
  • Soil
  • Life (Biodiversity)
  • Non renewable minerals (Iron, Copper, Sand)
  • Renewable energy (Sun, Wind, Flowing water) and
  • Non renewable energy (Fossil fuels, Nuclear power)

Natural services:

  • Air purification
  • Water purification
  • Soil renewal
  • Nutrient recycling
  • Food production
  • Pollination
  • Grassland renewal
  • Forest renewal
  • Waster treatment
  • Climate control
  • Population control (Species interaction) and
  • Pest control

Environmentally sustainable City

An envitonmentally sustainable city or ecocity or green city emphasizes the following points:

Preventing pollution and reducing waste
Using resources and matter resources efficiently
Recycling, reusing and composting atleast 60% of all municipal solid waste
Using solar and other locally available, renewable energy resources
Protecting and encouraging biodiversity by preserving surrounding land

The following are examples of green cities in the world:
Curitiba (Brazil)
Waitakere city (New Zealand)
Leicester (England)
Portland (Oregon, USA)
Davis (California, USA)
Olympia (Washington, USA)
Chattanooga (Tennessee, USA)