Friday, December 12, 2014


Environmental studies - Introduction, Definition, scope and importance, measuring and defining environmental development indicators
Basic principles of ecosystem functioning - Concept of an ecosystem, structure and function of an ecosystem, producers, consumers and decomposers - energy flow in an ecosystem, food chains, food webs and food pyramids. Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of:
-Forest ecosystem
-Desert ecosystem
-Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans)
Biodiversity and its conservation - Introduction, Genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Biogeographical classification of India. Value of biodiversity - consumptive and predictive use, social, ethical and optional value. Biodiversity at global, national and local levels. Hotspots of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity - habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts, India sa a mega-diversity nation, Endangered and endemic species of India. Conservation of biodiversity (In-situ and ex-situ conservation)

Environment and natural resources - Forest resources (use and over-exploitation), deforestation, timber extraction, mining and dams - their effects on forests and tribal people. Case studies. Water resources use and over-utilization of surface and ground water. Floods, droughts, Conflicts over water, Dams - benefits and demerits. Mineral resources - use and exploitation. Effects of extracting and using mineral resources. Case studies. Food resources - World food problems. Change caused by agriculture and overgrazing. Effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problem, water logging and salinity. Case studies. Energy resources - Growing energy needs, Renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources, Case studies. Land resources, Land as a resource, Common property resources, land degradation, soil erosion and desertification.
Environmental valuation - Welfare measure and environmental values, Definition and classification of environmental values, valuation methods,
Environmental Economics - Economic approach to environmental preservation and conservation, property rights and externalities, Management of natural resources, Natural resources accounting, Economics of natural resources - Forests, water resources, fisheries, biodiversity.


Environmental Pollution - Causes, effects and control measures of air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, marine pollution, noise pollution, nuclear hazards, solid waste management, urban and industrial wastes, pollution case studies,pollution control methods. Disaster management - Floods, Earthquakes, Cyclones and landslides.
Environmental problems in India - Effects of human activities on the quality of life, water and river, ground water, wasteland reclamation. Energy-firewood, animal energy, thermal and nuclear energy. Access to common property resources(CPR), Pollution: Domestic solid waste, Health and sanitation, safe drinking water

Regional and sectoral issues - Urbanization, Agro-forestry, Dry lands, Goods and services, Mountain development, River basin water resource managtement, sustainable tourism, Coastal zone managenment.
Environment and development - The economy and environment interaction, State of the environment - economics of development, preservation and conservation. Sustainability: Theory and practice, Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. Role of anindividual in pollution prevention.
Human population annd the environment - Population growth and the environment - human rights - VALUE EDUCATION - woman and child welfare - role of information technology - case studies

Social issues and the environment - From unsustainable to sustainable development, Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management. Resettlement and rehabilitation of people - its problems and concerns. case studies; Environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions, consumerism and waste products, public awareness, role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.
Sustainable resource management - Benefits and costs of environmental management, market and non-market benefits, health benefits, recreation benefits, aesthetic benefits, environmental costs, environmental impact assessment - evaluation of project and programs
Design of environmental policy - Direct regulation by government, command and control instruments, economic instruments, pollution taxes, marketable permits, mixed instruments, informal regulation by local communities, monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulation.
Institutions and governance - Evolution of laws, institutions and policies relating to India, popular participation in environment movement environmental activities and ethics that sustain the world
Environment and sustainable development - Concepts and indicators - linkages and trade-offs - indicators of sustainability, Approaches to sustainable development.