Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Disaster Management

Disaster management
A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material, and economic or environmental losses that exceed the community’s or society’s ability to cope using its own resources. Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins

Disaster Management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.

Disaster management Is a systematic process of planning, organising, and leading in order to effectively manage the after-effects of a disaster.
It aims to reduce the negative impact or consequences of adverse events

Types of disasters
Disasters can be classified as natural, man-made and human-induced.

Examples of natural disasters are:

Examples of man-made disasters are:
Nuclear leaks (Fukushima nuclear reactor leak)
Chemical leaks / spills
Terrorist activities
Structural collapse

Examples of human-induced disasters are:
Global warming
Drying-up of ural sea (inland sea) in Russia due to water diversion
Large scale deforestation
Large scale biological warfare

Disaster management cycle
Disaster management is an enormous task. Disasters are not confined to any particular location, neither do they disappear as quickly as they appear. Therefore, it is essential that there is proper management to optimize efficiency of planning and response. Due to limited resources, collaborative efforts at the governmental, private and community levels are necessary.

Disaster management, and methodology,
Disaster management is a cyclical process; the end of one phase is the beginning of another
Timely decision making during each phase results in greater preparedness, better warnings, reduced vulnerability and/or the prevention of future disasters.
Mitigation: Measures put in place to minimize the results from a disaster.
Examples: building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.
Preparedness: Planning how to respond.
Example: preparedness plans, emergency exercises/training; warning systems.
Response: Initial actions taken as the event takes place. It involves efforts to minimize the hazards created by a disaster.

Examples: evacuation, search and rescue; emergency relief.
Recovery: Returning the community to normal. Ideally, the affected area should be put in a condition equal to or better than it was before the disaster took place.
Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical care.

Disaster management in India.
In order to manage the various kinds of disasters occurring sporadically in various parts of India, The Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides for the constitution of the following institutions at national, state and district levels.
National Disaster Management Authority
State Disaster Management Authorities
District Disaster Management Authorities
National Institute of Disaster Management and
National Disaster Response Force

Disaster prevention
These are activities designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards. In January 2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year global plan for natural disaster risk reduction called the Hyogo Framework. It offers guiding principles, priorities for action, and practical means for achieving disaster resilience for vulnerable communities.

Disaster preparedness
These activities are designed to minimise loss of life and damage – for example by removing people and property from a threatened location and by facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation. Preparedness is the main way of reducing the impact of disasters. Community-based preparedness and management should be a high priority in physical therapy practice management.

Disaster relief
This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results. Relief activities include rescue, relocation, providing food and water, preventing disease and disability, repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport, providing temporary shelter and emergency health care.

Disaster recovery
Once emergency needs have been met and the initial crisis is over, the people affected and the communities that support them are still vulnerable. Recovery activities include rebuilding infrastructure, health care and rehabilitation. These should blend with development activities, such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid similar situations in future.

Basic principles of disaster mitigation
Disaster mitigation measures are the measures that eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs. Example: Building of a floodway.
Disaster mitigation measures may be structural (e.g. flood dikes) or non-structural (e.g. land use zoning). Mitigation activities should incorporate the measurement and assessment of the evolving risk environment. Activities may include the creation of comprehensive, pro-active tools that help decide where to focus funding and efforts in risk reduction.
Other examples of mitigation measures include:
Hazard mapping
Adoption and enforcement of land use and zoning practices
Implementing and enforcing building codes
Flood plain mapping
Reinforced tornado safe rooms
Burying of electrical cables to prevent ice build-up
Raising of homes in flood-prone areas
Disaster mitigation public awareness programs
Insurance programs